Diseases of apple leaves: descriptions with photos, treatment
Fruit trees are very sensitive to unpleasant diseases, and the apple tree was no exception. Most fun is the fungi that affect all parts of the tree. Viruses appear less often, and, of course, improper care has not gone away. Most often, alarming symptoms first appear on the leaves, so you need to be especially careful about them!
Pimples and tubercles on the leaves
If the spots on the leaves of the apple tree began to acquire a pronounced texture, this greatly narrows the search for a problem. Most often, such deformations are a consequence of the activity of pests.
- Aphids actively lay their larvae everywhere and galls form on the surface of leaves. Later, the leaves begin to dry and curl, because the insects draw all the juices out of them;
- Small brown spots with tubercles are a symptom of phylostictosis. For the characteristic symptomatology, the disease is called "brown spotting", and over time, the affected leaves simply fall off.
Leaves turn yellow and dry
This is perhaps the most common problem, so it mistakenly seems simple and straightforward. But the fact is that there are too many reasons for yellowing and drying of leaves.
- First, problems arise due to heat and lack of moisture. And when the leaves, on the contrary, soften and rot, then the point is its overabundance;
- Yellowness and dryness from the edges begin due to a deficiency of iron, magnesium or calcium in the soil;
- Due to watering at the height of the day or a sharp change of rain to the scorching sun, burns may appear on the leaves - dried yellow spots;
- The leaves of the apple tree weaken and dry due to the fact that they are eaten by an apple tick. This is a very voracious pest that safely winters between branches and revives in the spring. If the tick eats the kidneys, then the young leaves will immediately be painful;
- Small and pale yellow spots on the leaves upon closer examination can begin to actively creep to the sides. Then these are scabies that resemble small specks in the form of a comma. Because of them, the leaves can dry and fall completely;
- Bright yellow chaotic stripes with dots are woven into a bizarre mosaic pattern when defeated by a mosaic. An incurable virus suggests that then the tree must be destroyed.
Brown spots on the leaves of the apple tree
Sometimes, instead of yellow spots, red, brown, or even red appear on the leaves. This is a more characteristic symptom, which often indicates fungi or viruses.
- Red chaotic spots on the leaf plates may be a sign of rust. Later, a fungal disease without treatment spreads to the fruits;
- Brown spots with a bright middle that can fall out or crack - a sign of septoria. This disease is also called "white spotting" and most fruit crops suffer from it;
- Marsoniasis or brown spots appear due to insufficient care of the crown;
- Dark spots with an olive tint are left by the main enemy of fruit trees - scab. Fortunately, now there are varieties of apples resistant to a terrible scourge;
- Bright red spots are another type of fungal spotting. But polystigmosis does not affect apple trees too often and is more characteristic, for example, of plums;
- Brown spots appear due to severe copper deficiency. Most often, it is associated with an overabundance of nitrogen fertilizers, which violates the absorption of other trace elements.
The leaves of the apple tree turn black
Blackness is a classic sign of tissue necrosis, which means that the case has already taken a serious turn. It is time to take emergency measures to at least save the rest of the trees.
- Blackening and dying causes a burn of the root system. Young seedlings most often suffer from it after too early or too abundant organic manure;
- The leaves of a young apple tree may also turn black due to improper watering, because young trees are literally sensitive to everything;
- If the black spots are more likely to resemble a soot coating, it may be a soot fungus. Most often, it appears after an aphid invasion;
- Small dots that are growing rapidly are black cancer. First, the leaves of the apple tree are covered with red spots, and only then black foci form on them. The same disease affects the wood when the bark is covered with ulcers and cracks to cambium;
- The leaves turn black completely due to a bacterial burn that spreads to inflorescences and shoots. Bacteria carry insects, and it is very difficult to restore the apple tree completely later.
White plaque on the leaves of the apple tree
White plaque of any shade or consistency is a sure sign of a fungus. Indeed, this is exactly how mycelium spreads and multiplies, slowly capturing more and more territory.
- The most common cause of white plaque on leaves is powdery mildew. Later, the affected areas dry out and die;
- The white web that braids leaves and branches is the result of the life of the spider mite;
- Another insect that leaves behind a white plaque-web - apple moth. Because of it, the leaves of the apple tree become as if transparent, because it does not touch the shell, but eats away the flesh;
- The sheet plate seems dull and with a silvery sheen due to a disease called “milk shine”.
Pale and light leaves
From time to time, the leaves of the apple tree do not turn yellow, but simply lose their color. They become pale green or whitish, and the problem affects leaves of any age.
- The leaves grow weak, lethargic and faded due to the lack of nitrogen, which is vital during the growing season;
- A general deficiency or imbalance in the trace elements causes the same consequences, therefore it is recommended to use complex fertilizers.
Apple tree leaves curl
Leaf deformation is always an alarming symptom, no matter how it looks. In the best case, these are pests, from which banal spraying will help. At worst, a severe stage of one of the viral diseases that can destroy the entire garden.
- The leaves of the apple tree are twisted into tubes due to the fact that they are eaten out by leaflets. They pupate there, and then leave only veins after themselves and pass on to the crop;
- If the leaves seem to be glued together and upon closer inspection you can see brown sticky droplets - this is the trouble of the tinker. In early spring, they can glue buds and buds;
- Leaves become stained, swell and deform due to kinkiness;
- And because of the small-leavedness, they become narrow, deformed and assembled into nondescript sockets.